Reforma Agraria sebagai Jalan menuju Perdamaian yang Berkelanjutan di Aceh

  • Akhyar Tarfi Kantor Wilayah Badan Pertanahan Nasional Provinsi Aceh
  • Ikhwan Amri Kantor Wilayah Badan Pertanahan Nasional Provinsi Aceh

Abstract

Abstract: The signing of the Helsinki Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in 2005 marked the end of the Indonesian government's decades-long conflict with the Free Aceh Movement. One of the deals in the Helsinki MoU is to provide farming land to former combatants, amnestied political prisoners, and conflict victims as a form of reintegration and livelihood restoration. However, this activity did not run effectively for a dozen years after the peace deal due to the absence of regulations and authorities in its implementation. Based on this background, this paper examines the role of Agrarian Reform on the policy of agricultural land provision to the people related to the Aceh conflict. This research used a qualitative approach, and relied on observational data and literature review. Agrarian Reform can be an alternative strategy for post-conflict peacebuilding. The concept of asset reform and access reform offered in the Agrarian Reform can be adopted to realize the allocation of agricultural land by the mandate of the Helsinki MoU. The main problems found so far are that there is no regulation regarding the granting of land rights in the law, authority, and several obstacles in its implementation. This paper also provides a crucial lesson that proper agrarian policy contributes to the prevention of recurring conflicts that have the potential to cause national disintegration.

Keywords: Agrarian Reform, Free Aceh Movement, Helsinki MoU, Land Redistribution, Peacebuilding

 

Intisari : Penandatanganan Momerandum of Understanding (MoU) Helsinki pada tahun 2005 menandai berakhirnya konflik pemerintah Indonesia dengan Gerakan Aceh Merdeka selama beberapa dekade. Salah satu kesepakatan di dalam MoU Helsinki adalah menyediakan tanah pertanian kepada mantan kombatan, tahanan politik yang memperoleh amnesti, dan korban konflik sebagai bentuk reintegrasi dan pemulihan penghidupan. Namun, kegiatan ini tidak berjalan secara efektif selama belasan tahun setelah perjanjian damai karena belum adanya regulasi dan kewenangan dalam pelaksanaannya. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut, tulisan ini mengkaji peran Reforma Agraria terhadap kebijakan penyediaan tanah pertanian untuk masyarakat yang berkaitan dengan konflik Aceh. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, serta mengandalkan data observasi dan tinjauan literatur. Reforma Agraria dapat menjadi strategi alternatif pembangunan perdamaian pasca-konflik. Konsep penataan aset dan penataan akses yang ditawarkan di dalam Reforma Agraria dapat diadopsi untuk merealisasikan alokasi tanah pertanian sesuai amanah MoU Helsinki. Permasalahan-permasalahan utama yang ditemukan selama ini adalah belum adanya pengaturan mengenai pemberian hak atas tanah tersebut di dalam peraturan perundang-undangan, kewenangan, dan sejumlah hambatan dalam pelaksanaannya. Tulisan ini juga memberikan pelajaran penting bahwa kebijakan agraria yang tepat dapat berkontribusi terhadap pencegahan konflik berulang yang dapat berpotensi menyebabkan disintegrasi bangsa.

Kata Kunci: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, MoU Helsinki, Pembangunan Perdamaian, Redistribusi Tanah, Reforma Agraria

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    Published
    2021-12-12
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    How to Cite
    Tarfi, A., & Amri, I. (2021). Reforma Agraria sebagai Jalan menuju Perdamaian yang Berkelanjutan di Aceh. BHUMI: Jurnal Agraria Dan Pertanahan, 7(2), 210–225. https://doi.org/10.31292/bhumi.v7i2.509