Kepengaturan tanpa Perlawanan Langsung: Program Pemetaan GPS Partisipatif di Taman Nasional Mae Tho, Thailand


  • Adrianus Venda Pratama Putra Mahasiswa Pascasarjana Antropologi Budaya UGM



Pemetaan GPS partisipatif, penertiban, konstruksi marjinalitas, institusi lokal, LSM, gereja


Agrarian conflict between the Karen people and the Royal Forestry Department (RFD) in the northern Thailand has been going on for a long time. The root of the problem is that Karen tenurial rights are not recognized, even they lived there for hundreds 0f years. Their access to the forest also restricted because the area is included in the Mae Tho National Park. The conflict eventually subsided after the acceptance of the GPS participatory mapping program initiated by NGOs and the government. The program was well-received without significant resistance. The proof is that 80% of residents in the village where this research takes place agrees with the program. Some residents even boast of the program, even the program prohibits local residents from expanding their land beyond the land they have occupied for hundreds of years. Departing from the Michael Foucault framework of governmentality and etnographic research method, there are seven reasons why the program could run effectively. First, land insecurity makes Karen people crave land recognition. Second, they accepted the idea of conservation due to the construction of marginality limits their choices. Third, migration reduces pressure on the land. Fourth, debt bondage. Fifth, the role of NGOs. Sixth, the use of local institutions and churches that campaign for program benefits. Seventh, the creation of a national park as a new economic space.

Keywords: GPS participatory mapping; governmentality; conservation; debt; local institutions; NGOs

Intisari: Konflik agraria antara orang Karen dan Royal Forestry Department (RFD) di pegunungan utara Thailand telah berlangsung lama. Pangkal masalahnya ialah orang Karen yang telah ratusan tahun tinggal di sana tidak direkognisi hak tenurialnya dan hendak dibatasi aksesnya ke hutan karena wilayah tersebut masuk ke dalam Taman Nasional Mae Tho. Konflik tersebut akhirnya mereda pasca diterimanya program pemetaan GPS partisipatif yang digagas oleh LSM dan pemerintah. Program tersebut diterima dengan efektif tanpa perlawanan berarti. Buktinya adalah  80% warga di lokasi riset setuju dengan program tersebut. Beberapa warga bahkan membanggakan program tersebut. Padahal program tersebut melarang warga sekitar meluaskan lahannya di tanah yang telah dihuni selama ratusan tahun. Berangkat dari kerangka pikir kepengaturan Michael Foucault dan metode riset etnografi, ada tujuh alasan mengapa program tersebut bisa berjalan efektif. Pertama, insekuritas atas tanah membuat orang Karen menginginkan rekognisi lahan. Kedua, konstruksi marjinalitas membatasi pilihan mereka sehingga ide konservasi harus diakomodasi. Ketiga, migrasi membuat tekanan atas tanah berkurang. Keempat, jerat hutang. Kelima, peran LSM. Keenam, penggunaan institusi lokal dan gereja yang mengkampanyekan manfaat program. Ketujuh, diciptakannya taman nasional sebagai ruang ekonomi baru.

Kata Kunci: Pemetaan GPS partisipatif; kepengaturan; konservasi; utang; institusi lokal; LSM


Download data is not yet available.


Bernstein, H 2009, V.I. Lenin and A.V. Chayanov: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Journal of Peasant Studies, pp. 55-81.
Cocharane, Logan, Jon Corbett, Peter Keler 2014, Impact of Community-based and Participatory Mapping. Institute for Studies and Innovation in Community, University Engagement, University of Victoria.
Delang, CO 2003, Living at the Edge of Society,Routledge, London.
Dove, Michael 1993, Smallholder Rubber and Swidden Agriculture in Borneo: A Sustainable Adaptation to the Ecology and Economy of the Tropical Forest, Economic botany 47 (2), 136-147.
Foucault, M 2008, The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979. New York, Palgrave MacMillan.
Gine, X 2012, Land Security in Rural Thailand, s.l, World Bank.
Hale, CR, 2006 Activist Research v. Cultural Critique, Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 21,(Issue 1,), pp. 96–120.
Harvey, D, 2005, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, New York.
Karthik, Teegalapalli, Gopi Govindhan Veeraswami, Prasanna Kumar Samal, 2009, Forest Recovery Following Shifting Cultivation: an Overview of Existing Research, Tropical Conservation Science, Vol. 2(4), 374-387.
Khan, MT 2013, Theoretical Frameworks in Political Ecology and Participatory Nature/Forest Conservation: the Necessity for a Heterodox Approach and the Critical Moment, Journal of Political Ecology.
Khoo, Bo Teik 2010, Social Movments and the Crisis of Neoliberalism in Thailand and Malysia. IDE Duscusion Paper, No. 238 (6).
Laungaramsri, P 2000, Redefining Nature: Karen Ecological Knowledge and the Challenge to the Modern Conservation Paradigm, Dissertation, University of Washington, Washington.
Li, TM 2007, The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics, Duke University Press, Durham.
Li, TM 2012, The Will to Improve: Perencanaan, Pembangunan, dan Kekuasaan di Indonesia, Marjin Kiri, Tangerang Selatan.
Mudhoffir, AM 2011, Governmentality dan Pemberdayaan dalam Advokasi Lingkungan: Kasus Lumpur Lapindo, Pusat Kajian Sosiologi, LabSosio FISIP-UI., Volume Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 49-75.
Peluso, NL 1995, Whose Woods Are These?, Antipode, 274, pp. 383-406.
Rambo, T 1981, No Free Lunch: a Reexamination of the Energetic Efficiency of Swidden Agriculture, University of Philippines and East-West Center, Hawai.
Ramprasad, V 2018, Debt and Vulnerability: Indebtness, Institutions, and Smallholders Agriculture in South India, Journal of Peasant Studies.
Reyes-García, V, Gueze, M, Orta-Martinez, M & Luz, AC, 2012, Does Participatory Mapping Increase Conflicts? A Randomized Evaluation in the Bolivian Amazon, Applied Geography, p. 34.
Santasombat, Yos 2004, Karen Cultural Capital and the Political Economy of Symbolic Power, Asian Ethnicity, 5, no.1, pp. 105-120
Schmidt-Vogt, D 1998, Defining Degradation: the Impacts of Swidden on Forests in Northern Thailand, Mountain Research and Development, 135-149.
Trakansuphakon, Praset 1997, Transmision of Body KnowledgeRelating to the Shifting Cultivation System of Karen Community, Non-Formal Education Master Thesis, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Walker, A & Forsyth, T, 2007, Forest Guardians, Forest Destroyers: the Politics of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand, University of Washington, Washington.
Waraluck, I 1998, Rai Mun wian: Manda Haeng Phan Phuet Swidden Agriculture: Mother, B.S. Printing, Chiang Mai.
Winichakul, T 1997, Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation, 3rd penyunt, University of Hawaii, Hawaii.