Ketimpangan dan Kontinuitas Patronase dalam Lintasan Sejarah: Menelusuri Sejarah Perubahan Agraria di Malang Selatan

Authors

  • Grace Leksana Universitas Leiden/ Royal Netherlands Institute of South East Asia and Carribean Studies

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31292/jb.v5i1.319

Keywords:

Patronage relation, clientelism, class inequality, 1965 violence, colonial plantation, MalangEast Java

Abstract

Abstract: Opinions that perceive villages (desa) as solid entity, traditional, reservoir of labor and foodcrops, have been intensively criticized. On the contrary, villages are filled with social-political tension, class difference, and became areas where large conflicts in history also took place. This article develops the second argument, which tries to trace agrarian transformation through history: from the colonial period, independence and the New Order. By presenting a case study in South Malang, East Java, this article aim to show that village dynamics are controlled by patronage relation, where agrarian policies only benefited certain groups in the village. Historical analysis also shows how patronage relation persisted, although the state had changed. Violence that occurred in regime change did not necessarily transform the patronage relation in the village, instead strengthened it through the formation of new alliances. Agrarian policies that are going to be developed in the present should notice this power relation. The question of ‘who gets what’ should be continuously raised by agrarian studies experts and policy makers.

Keywords: patronage relation, clientelism, class inequality, 1965 violence, colonial plantation, Malang-East Java

Intisari: Pandangan yang melihat desa sebagai entitas solid, tradisional, reservoir tenaga kerja dan pangan, telah banyak dikritik. Sebaliknya, desa dipenuhi dengan ketegangan sosial-politik, perbedaan kelas dan area dimana konflik-konflik besar dalam sejarah juga terjadi. Artikel ini mengembangkan pandangan kedua, dan berusaha menelusuri perubahan agraria dari masa ke masa: periode kolonial, kemerdekaan dan Orde Baru. Dengan mengambil studi kasus di Malang Selatan, Jawa Timur, artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa dinamika desa dikuasai oleh relasi patronase, sehingga kebijakan-kebijakan agraria hanya menguntungkan kelompok tertentu di desa. Analisa historis juga memperlihatkan bagaimana relasi patronase terus bertahan, meskipun negara (dalam hal ini sistem pemerintahan) telah berubah. Kekerasan yang terjadi dalam perubahan-perubahan rezim tidak mengubah relasi patron di tingkat desa, namun justru memperkuatnya dengan memunculkan aliansi-aliansi baru. Kebijakan-kebijakan agraria yang akan diambil pada masa kini seyogyanya memperhatikan relasi kuasa tersebut, sehingga pertanyaan ‘siapa mendapat apa’ harus kerap dikedepankan oleh para pegiat studi agraria dan para pengambil kebijakan.

Kata kunci: relasi patronase, klientelisme, ketimpangan kelas, kekerasan 1965, perkebunan kolonial, Malang-Jawa Timur

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Published

2019-05-23

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