Bagaimana Sertifikasi Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Gagal Mencegah Perusahaan Anggota RSPO dan ISPO Merampas Tanah Adat di Indonesia?

Anggalih Bayu Muh Kamim(1*), Muhammad Irsyad Abrar(2)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The principle of sustainability on commodity certification such as RSPO and ISPO include acknowledgement and protection of indigenous people’s right. Membership in these schemes however didn’t prevent some members companies from grabbing indigenous people’s land. This study then try to understand the limitation of RSPO and ISPO to prevent its members involvement in land grabbing act. The paper use the method of literature review. Due to time restriction and research focus, the review is being limited on literature that can explain how far those certification could prevented land grabbing. The result of the study divided to three section: institutional, the provision implementation in RSPO depend on voluntary act of its members companies and provision in ISPO limited on the issues of conflict resolution and compensation but not the involvement of indigenous people; agency, RSPO faced with the domination of multinational companies that made indigenous people, NGO who represented their interest, and local producers as minority while ISPO faced with the problems of sectoral ego and overlap between government agencies; and political economy, where consideration must be given to the power and interest of actors such as state, elites, companies, and even auditor on certification process and plantation expansion.

Key words: RSPO, ISPO, land grabbing

Intisari: Prinsip keberlanjutan dalam sertifikasi komoditas seperti RSPO dan ISPO mencakup pengakuan dan perlindungan hak masyarakat adat. Keanggotaan dalam skema tersebut tetapi tidak mencegah beberapa perusahaan anggota dari merampas lahan masyarakat adat. Kajian ini berusaha untuk memahami batasan kemampuan RSPO dan ISPO dalam mencegah keterlibatan anggotanya dalam aktivitas perampasan lahan. Makalah ini menggunakan metode tinjauan literatur. Keterbatasan waktu dan fokus penelitian membatasi kajian pada literatur yang dapat menjelaskan batasan sertifikasi yang ada dan keberlanjutan perampasan lahan. Hasil kajian dari penelitian ini dibagi menjadi tiga bagian untuk menjelaskan keberlanjutan perampasan lahan masyarakat adat: dari institusional, penegakan ketentuan dalam RSPO cukup bergantung pada kesukarelaan dari perusahaan anggotanya dan ketentuan ISPO terbatas pada isu resolusi konflik dan kompensasi tetapi tidak pelibatan; agensi, RSPO dihadapkan dengan dominasi perusahaan multinasional yang menjadikan masyarakat adat, LSM yang mewakili kepentingan mereka, dan produsen lokal menjadi minoritas sedangkan ISPO dihadapkan dengan masalah egosektoral dan tumpang tindih peraturan antar lembaga pemerintah; dan politik ekonomi, di mana pertimbangan perlu diberikan pada kuasa dan kepentingan aktor seperti negara, elit, perusahaan, dan bahkan auditor dalam proses sertifikasi dan perluasan perkebunan.

Kata kunci: RSPO, ISPO, perampasan lahan


Keywords


Environmental Certification, Indigenous Peoples, Land Grabbing

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31292/bhumi.v6i2.410

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